While normally I'd be slightly tripped up by little things like an overly crowded subway car or a full inbox at work, the CBD oil seems to have taken the edge off of my anxiety a bit. Rather than overthinking a sternly worded email or analyzing a social interaction, I've found it easier to recognize the irrationality of these thoughts and actually let them go (instead of ruminating on the situation). In some ways, I feel more like myself. With that said, I've still experienced some social anxiety when meeting new groups of people—I'd be interested to see what taking the full recommended dose would do.
Sedatives, sometimes called tranquilizers, are exactly what they sound like. The purpose is to make the brain less excitable and to cause a sort of mild sedation. This approach, just as the other one, does help a lot of people. The problem with this type of drug, though, is that they usually cause a good bit of drowsiness, and in extreme cases can lead to dependency.
Canabidol™ CBD Cannabis Oil (CBD Oli)– Available in 25%,50% and 75% concentrations. Our proprietary engineering process has been developed to isolate and remove any unwanted compounds, while creating the maximum potency level of phytocannabinoids.  State-of-the-art technology is employed to ensure a full-spectrum oil, that includes both high levels of Canabidiol, Cannabinoids and terpenes. This guarantees a consistent, pure, and premium product for our customers

I started using marijuana as a teen. The main reason that kept me using it was the fact that it made my stomach stop hurting. I thought I just had anxiety problems or an ulcer. I have no Idea It’s one of the reason that supress the pain I feel after I read this article from http://www.ilovegrowingmarijuana.com/cbd-in-medic…. Since reading is not my thing back then.

© 2018 Floyd's of Leadville. This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited By Law.
I have not read all 220+ comments, so perhaps this issue was raised, but I have read in multiple sources that hemp plants and marijuana plants are not the same. Various sites claim that this issue is confusing consumers and they state that (industrial) hemp plants tend to be low CBD and lack the full spectrum of cannabanoids, terpenes and other chemicals. They caution consumers to purchase only CBDs derived from female flowered marijuana plants if they want the full health benefits. They also state that CBDs in isolation do not work as well as when they are coupled with THC and other cannabinoids and terpenes. (Nature always knows best.) Your product is derived from industrial hemp plants according to BioCBD’s website. You have addressed the issue of the female flowers (thank you), but I am still very confused about this issue. Can you clarify? Thank you. P.S. I, personally, won’t be able to use your product because I am sadly allergic to turmeric, but I appreciate the information you have presented here. I will have to wait for another company to manufacture a water soluble product with a different carrier.
The link provides additional information that may be useful or interesting and has no aliation to the promotion, sale and distribution of Medical Marijuana Inc. products. The link does not constitute an endorsement of these organizations by Medical Marijuana Inc. and none should be inferred. Please view our full Terms Of Use Agreement for more information and the terms and conditions governing your use of this site.
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (January 2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB(1) receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759.

^ Jump up to: a b Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC 2697769. PMID 19133999.

So! I’m hoping that CBD will help. Before I purchase natureCBD, I just wanted to ask a couple of questions. (I live in the UK so am mindful of the shipping). Firstly, what starting dose would you recommend and when/how would I know when to increase the dose? And to what maximum? How long does it usually take to see results and at what point, if I don’t see results, would it be fair enough to stop taking it and assume it isn’t the solution?
So am I to assume, due to no response/deleted comment that my simple question was too difficult to answer? With all the technical & correct information you have on you GREAT website, can someone (?) not simply correct or acknowledge the FACT the your NOT using nano-particle size product? I am truly interesting (for my wife) in CBD, have done my research, and I love working with numbers which is why if found this discrepancy. Comments welcome, but avoidance is disturbing.
The Cannabis Health Index (CHI) is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis (in general, not just CBD effects) and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data. Refer to cannabishealthindex.com for updated information and more about studies related to specific types of pain. Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty (for various types of pain), CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy. It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids.
Parkinson’s disease. Some early research shows that taking cannabidiol daily for 4 weeks improves psychotic symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease and psychosis. But taking a specific cannabis extract (Cannador) that contains THC and cannabidiol does not appear to improve involuntary muscle movements caused by the anti-Parkinson’s drug levodopa in people with Parkinson’s disease.

CBD hemp oil has a number of uses and comes in many forms including capsules, tinctures, sublingual supplements, liquid oil, oil as a paste, sprays, salves, creams and in edible forms, such as candies or sweets. You can also inhale CBD oil from vapor-releasing pens, similar to the technology for e-cigarettes. This variety also provides a lot of controlled flexibility in terms of concentration, making CBD hemp oil useful and desirable for people of all ages, economic means, and personal needs.

Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.
My husband was diagnosed with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) when he was 61 years old 4 years ago. The Rilutek (riluzole) did very little to help him. The medical team did even less. His decline was rapid and devastating. His arms weakened first, then his hands and legs. Last year, a family friend told us about Rich Herbs Foundation (RHF) and their successful ALS TREATMENT, we visited their website www. richherbsfoundation. com and ordered their ALS/MND Formula, i am happy to report the treatment effectively treated and reversed his Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), most of the symptoms stopped, he is able to walk and able to ride his treadmill again, he is pretty active now.
As mentioned previously, while CBD-dominant products help some people sleep, in others it promotes wakefulness. Orally administered THC, especially products from heavier “Kush” strains and Purple cannabis varieties, are very effective for sleep disorders. These tend to be high in myrcene and linalool, a terpene shared with lavender and known to be effective for relaxation. Cannabis combinations with ratios of 1:1, 4:1, or 24:1 CBD:THC can be used when patients want to reduce psychoactivity.

How do you know if you're having a panic or anxiety attack? Panic attacks and anxiety attacks share some symptoms, but they differ in intensity, duration, and whether or not there is a trigger. Some treatments are similar and include therapy, stress management, and breathing exercises. Learn more about the differences between a panic attack and an anxiety attack here. Read now

Cannabidiol is currently a class B1 controlled drug in New Zealand under the Misuse of Drugs Act. It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In 2017 the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health.
i read that hemp derived CBD isnt nearly as “active” or effective as the full spectrum plant based CBD. is this why you’ve introduced the other herbs – to increase the effectiveness of the hemp derived CBD? i also know turmeric has anti-inflammatory properties. so is this the real reason for including this treatment category or does the hemp based CBD have some anti-inflammatory properties also?
It was in early 2014 that my veterinarian friend first recommended I look into CBD oil for dogs. My oldest dog was suffering from arthritis and my middle dog had recently begun suffering from severe anxiety any time I walked toward the door.  The CBD oil did wonders for both my dogs. Since then, I’ve been a strong advocate for CBD Treats and Oil for Dogs.
Nora Volkow from the National Institute on Drug Abuse reiterated the decision of (then) two dozen states to allow medical marijuana to be used in one way or another in their jurisdictions. This should open everyone’s eyes to the sanctioning of a non-addictive, non-psychoactive substance which has been linked to benefits for patients suffering from seizure disorders, quite a few neurodegenerative disorders or pain resulting from cancer.
The researchers leading many of the studies on marijuana extracts and obesity are affiliated with the UK’s GW Pharmaceuticals, which makes me cringe that pharmaceutical companies are going to make some kind of very expensive CBD-based weight loss drug.  But regardless of motive, in these studies, the researchers found that the two compounds, THCV and cannabidiol, boosted metabolism, and reduced levels of liver fat, and blood cholesterol. These same compounds also made mice more sensitive to insulin, protected the cells that produce insulin, and increasing metabolic rate – all while suppressing the appetite. Nice.

People with neurodegenerative disorders might see better days in the future as researchers are investigating the ways CBD can treat such a condition. So far, studies have found that a receptor known as CB1 is responsible for the deterioration of nerves and brain. And it is by treating this receptor’s inflammation that we can control neurodegenerative disorders like:

I have/had ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. I used thc/cbd oil pills I self made from the start. I am supposedly their “poster child”. I went thru with chemo and surgery. Oh that horror! But when I tried to tell two seperate doctors, the surgeon was all about it, and my oncologist threw a fit and said it was an anecdote. There are more than 100 studies at the NIH govt website.
I have chronic pain, severe recurring depression, no energy, no motivation, just really just tired of pain and tired of being tired… I have tried medical weed for severe pain, it worked, it also gave me energy. But have smoked street weed ND I get paranoid. Dont want that, yes I have sleeping problems. Just tired of all the damn pills, that I know I will pay for later. I broke my back 5yrs ago caught mrsa, I just want to feel better. Is there any help? I’m about to give up. Ty
If you have ever suffered from anxiety, then you know that it is awful, and it would be the same for your dog too. Many dogs suffer from anxiety and have been known to be depressed and extremely anxious in certain situations, such as when their owner leaves. This can result in destructive behaviors such as chewing objects, urinating, pacing, and more. CBD helps because it is a relaxing stimulant that calms your pet.
Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as an oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[1][3]
Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses essential to coping with threats to survival. Yet excessive or persistent fear may be maladaptive, leading to disability. Symptoms arising from excessive fear and anxiety occur in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Notably, PTSD and OCD are no longer classified as anxiety disorders in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5; however, excessive anxiety is central to the symptomatology of both disorders. These anxiety-related disorders are associated with a diminished sense of well-being, elevated rates of unemployment and relationship breakdown, and elevated suicide risk [1–3]. Together, they have a lifetime prevalence in the USA of 29 % [4], the highest of any mental disorder, and constitute an immense social and economic burden [5, 6].
I’ve been on anti-depressants for 11 years since having a stroke and having to stop taking estrogen. I started on Zoloft, then celexa, then Effexor. I’ve been having bad blurry vision for a few years that has my eye dr stumped. Finally my primary doctor thought it could be the Effexor since that is one of the side effects. So we decided that I would wean off the Effexor and try Wellbutrin instead. I lowered the amount of Effexor over 3 weeks till I wasn’t taking it any longer but started the Wellbutrin the last week of taking Effexor. After 3 days of no Effexor the withdrawals seemed to hit me. Headaches, nausea, extremely emotional, and bad dizziness. I had an important event to go to on day 3 of no Effexor so I took a low dose (37.5 mg) hoping to get me through the night. I felt decent for a couple days then boom, the withdrawal symptoms came on fully again. So I decided I would just try to go off both the Effexor and Wellbutrin because I didn’t want to go through this again and really wanted to see if I could handle life without them. Well it’s been a week without any Effexor but the dizziness and emotional outrages are still going on. I’ve been using Bonine (motion sickness) which does seem to help a little. My daughter mentioned the CBD oil which I was totally against at first but after doing a lot of research I am now quite interested in it.
...with due respect, your experience Locsta is almost precisely what happened with my....chihuahua. Degenerative disc disease, excruciating pain, prednisone worked, but couldn't keep her on it..pain killers and muscle relaxants didn't help, really thought I would have to put her down. Chi bloggers suggested CBD; gave PetReleaf a shot--like you, literally within minutes I could see the difference, in days she was pain free and now is back in charge of our world. The real key here is that with my dog, there is zero, nada, chance that there was any placebo effect...
According to a growing body of research, CBD may play a role in the growth of new brain cells, a process known as neurogenesis. CBD is also widely recognized as having anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities, which make CBD a promising therapy for a wide range of conditions, from neurological disorders to autoimmune diseases to chronic pain and depression.
This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Individual weight loss results will vary. By using this site, you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. Void Where Prohibited by Law.
Anxiety is an unpleasant issue that many people struggle with. While occasional anxiety is completely normal, it’s when worrying thoughts begin to spiral out of control that anxiety poses real problems. At its most severe, anxiety can have profound negative effects on your life. It can even prevent you from taking part in daily activities you may take for granted.
In the United States, approximately 70 million people suffer from insomnia, insufficient sleep or another sleep disorder. CBD extracts have been mistakenly described as sedating, but I haven’t found that to be the case with my own use and neither has research. Although it’s true that if you take a bunch of CBD (I’ve found 30mg+ of a good, absorbable CBD will do it for me) you will fall asleep like a baby, in modest doses, CBD is mildly alerting, and simply provides a calm, relaxed focus.
No, pure CBD oil does not contain THC, and therefore would not affect a drug test testing for THC. Most widely-used drug tests are comprised of an immunoassay that has antibodies for detecting metabolites that are produced from the oxidation of THC. These drug tests do not have cross-reactivity to CBD. Therefore, they give negative results when only pure CBD is used. One study of CBD oil users revealed that unlike THC, CBD does not show up on drug tests (source.)
The Cannabis Health Index (CHI) is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis (in general, not just CBD effects) and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data. Refer to cannabishealthindex.com for updated information. Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression.
The founder of Elixinol got his start in the hemp industry back in 1991, when he launched a “9bar,” a healthy snack bar packed with heart-healthy hemp which remains one of the world’s most popular hemp products. Elixinol sells an array of CBD products, including Tinctures, Capsules, Liposomes, Vape Liquids, and Topical Balms, all of which contain the purest-possibly hemp. The company sources hits hemp from farms in Europe, Australia, and America, uses a chemical- and heat-free, broad-spectrum CO2 extraction process, and employs a team of medical professionals to research and develop their product formulations. Most impressive, however, is the company’s standards of testing, which is conducted both in house and third-party, and which covers potency, microbiological contamination, heavy metals, pesticides, and terpene profile. The European-based labs employ equipment and personnel from the pharmaceutical industry, and all test results are posted online alongside product listings. There are a few contenders for best CBD oil for anxiety in their product selection. Their original and cinnamint-flavored CBD tinctures are most popular, and come in strengths of in dosages of 300 or 600 mg per 15 ml bottle, or 3,600 mg per 120 ml (or, available for order from Brazil only, a heavy-duty 5,000 mg). The blend contains CBD suspended in hemp oil, plus Amino acids, Natural Sugars, Aldehydes, Alcohols, Ketones, Flavanoids, Glycosides, and Vitamins. Those In search of a portable CBD for anxiety can try their 15 mg CBD capsules, 300 mg or 600 mg oral spray, or Elixinol’s proprietary “X-Pen”, which is pre-loaded with 1,000 mg CBD and delivers precise dosages on-the-go.
Weight plays a role in the effects of CBD oil, and bottle size should be selected based on how much you weigh. Let’s say you weigh less than 130 pounds and desire light CBD oil effects; this means that 11 mg or less will probably suffice per dose, giving roughly 40 doses from a 450-mg concentration. If you weigh more than 230 pounds and desire strong effects, then this same concentration will supply roughly 10 doses. 
One of the most celebrated health benefits of CBD oil is its analgesic (pain relieving) effects. It’s thought that CBD interacts with receptors in the brain and immune system to reduce inflammation and alleviate pain. Some studies, such as this investigation published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, found that CBD significantly reduces inflammation in mice and rats – but it’s not only rodents that experience these effects. A 2008 review identified that CBD offered effective pain relief without inducing adverse side effects in patients.
Enter CBD oil: an anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety compound. I have seen in my own life, and many of my patients' lives, the positive impact CBD oil can have on anxiety. Studies have found that CBD oil is a natural anxiolytic (anxiety calmer) and is effective in treating social anxiety. CBD calms anxiety naturally without the potential side effects of pharmaceutical anti-anxiety medications.

The cannabis plant is filled with hundreds of different compounds, several of which have been studied for decades for their therapeutic benefits. The cannabis compounds that have captured the most scientific interest are known as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are now used in treatment for a broad—and growing—range of conditions and symptoms, from sleep and pain, to anxiety and inflammation, to Parkinson’s disease and cancer.
Cachexia is a disorder involving dangerous weight loss brought on by diseases as diverse as AIDS, cancer or Alzheimer’s. A 2011 German study involving more than 100 people proved that patients on the placebo lost about 80 percent more weight weekly than those administered a cannabinoid cocktail. This, along with the mood-elevating properties of cannabidiol implies future applications for the treatment of widespread eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.
Due to the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabidiol, insulin resistance (the chief metabolic problem for patients with type 2 diabetes) is reduced, leading to a better prognosis thanks also to the lower incidence of dead tissue. Ever since the discovery of CBD in the 1990’s, speculation existed to its effect on other types of receptors (not just cannabinoid receptors) which could be manipulated and included in the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis. In light of these speculations, researchers at the University of Tel Aviv (walking in the footsteps of the “father” of cannabinoid research, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam) demonstrated a 30 percent blood flow increase in rodents with areas of dead tissue in the heart muscle.[22]
Juliana Birnbaum is trained as a cultural anthropologist and skilled in four languages and has lived and worked in the U.S., Europe, Japan, Nepal, Costa Rica and Brazil. In 2005 she founded Voices in Solidarity, an initiative that partnered with Ashaninka indigenous tribal leaders from the Brazilian Amazon to support the development of the Yorenka Ãtame community-led environmental educational center featured in Sustainable [R]evolution. She was the first graduate of the Cornerstone Doula School, one of the most rigorous natural birth programs in the U.S., focusing on a holistic model of care. She is engaged variously as writer, editor, teacher, midwife assistant and mother when not attempting new yoga poses or learning how to garden.

I was in awe of CBD's potent effects, especially when I learned that the oil could be used to treat everyday ailments like anxiety, chronic pain, migraines, nausea, and inflammation in addition to serious issues like epilepsy, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's. With that, I threw caution to the wind and asked for a sample. Here's what happened when I took one full dropper of Charlotte's Web's Everyday Plus Hemp Oil in the mint chocolate flavor every morning for seven days.
You then take your first drop of CBD oil, wait 45 minutes, then ask the questions again. If you feel no different and there’s no change in the way you answer those questions, you increase the dose by small increments until you do notice a difference. You can continue this process over several days – and at some point, you’ll find that taking more doesn’t change your scores. That is your minimum effective dose.
I was in awe of CBD's potent effects, especially when I learned that the oil could be used to treat everyday ailments like anxiety, chronic pain, migraines, nausea, and inflammation in addition to serious issues like epilepsy, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's. With that, I threw caution to the wind and asked for a sample. Here's what happened when I took one full dropper of Charlotte's Web's Everyday Plus Hemp Oil in the mint chocolate flavor every morning for seven days.
[422] M. H. N. Chagas, A. L. Eckeli, A. W. Zuardi, M. A. Pena-Pereira, M. A. Sobreira-Neto, E. T. Sobreira, M. R. Camilo, M. M. Bergamaschi, C. H. Schenck, J. E. C. Hallak, V. Tumas, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Cannabidiol Can Improve Complex Sleep-Related Behaviours Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Case Series,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 39 (2014): 564–566. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179.
The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant (a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C)[194] in CBD oil has many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants. Cannabinoid receptors can be found in the skin and seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands.[195] Cannabis-based topical products are being developed to treat related issues from acne to psoriasis and can promote faster healing of damaged skin. In fact, historical documents show that cannabis preparations have been used for wound healing in both animals and people in a range of cultures spanning the globe and going back thousands of years. The use of concentrated cannabis and CBD oils to benefit and treat skin cancer is gaining popularity with a number of well-documented cases of people curing both melanoma and carcinoma-type skin cancers with the topical application of CBD and THC products. Best known is the case of Rick Simpson, who cured his basal cell carcinoma with cannabis oil and now has a widely distributed line of products. Cannabis applied topically is not psychoactive.
CBD E-Liquid/Vape Cartridges: Vaping is excellent for people looking for an immediate response, as inhalation is the fastest way to deliver CBDs to your brain and body. To use vape simply exhale gently the air from your lungs then inhale through the mouthpiece slowly for 3 seconds. Then fill your lungs the rest of the way with additional breath and hold for a few seconds, exhaling when ready. There are pre-filled, cost-effective vape pens and cartridges available as well as more expensive vaporizers that you can refill with CBD-infused e-liquid.
Dr. Will Cole, leading functional-medicine expert, consults people around the world via webcam at www.drwillcole.com and locally in Pittsburgh. He specializes in clinically investigating underlying factors of chronic disease and customizing health programs for thyroid issues, autoimmune conditions, hormonal dysfunctions, digestive disorders, and brain problems.Dr. Cole was named one of the top 50 functional-medicine and integrative doctors in the nation and is the author of Ketotarian in which he melds the powerful benefits of the ketogenic and plant-based diets.
Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products.
Anxiolytic effects in models used: CER = reduced fear response; CFC = reduced conditioned freezing; CFC extinction = reduced freezing following extinction training; EPM = reduced % time in open arm; ETM = decreased inhibitory avoidance; L-DT = increased % time in light; VCT = increased licks indicating reduced conflict; NSF = reduced latency to feed; OF = increased % time in center; SI = increased social interaction
×