The first step to finding your correct CBD dosage is getting as much information as you can about the product you’re using. What is the concentration of CBD? Are there third-party lab tests that can confirm that? The CBD industry is still mainly a grassroots therapeutic movement, and as such, largely unregulated. Concentration and purity levels can differ greatly depending on the manufacturing process.  
The definitions of hemp and marijuana can get pretty confusing, but for basic purposes, marijuana contains high levels of THC, and hemp contains low levels of THC. The ratios of CBD to THC in hemp oil can vary, depending on the product and the specific plant the oil was extracted from. CBD oil, a concentrated version of the cannabidiol compound, is typically derived from hemp but can be extracted from marijuana as well. CBD oil products on the market have varying levels of CBD and THC. Many have little to no THC, while some contain small amounts.
Curiously enough, when considering how beneficial CBD is for the body, it isn't absorbed very well. This can be negated by taking the CBD on an empty stomach and with a little coconut oil or an omega-3 supplemental oil. CBD is lipophilic, meaning that it binds to oils to be taken up by the body. Also, if you're taking a tincture or oil, put the drops under your tongue for faster absorption.
During the summer I changed my licenced provider to one who offers an exceptional, high-CBD strain they call Avidekal. Taking this can noticably improve my mental state to the point that I have experimented not taking it at all for a week, whereupon the loss of homeostasis begins to occur with more frequency. This month I made a butter from it so I can easily consume it every day before work without having to vaporize.
Several studies assessed CBD using contextual fear conditioning. Briefly, this paradigm involves pairing a neutral context, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), a mild foot shock. After repeated pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the US, and subsequent CS presentation elicits freezing and other physiological responses. Systemic administration of CBD prior to CS re-exposure reduced conditioned cardiovascular responses [63], an effect reproduced by microinjection of CBD into the BNST, and partially mediated by 5-HT1AR activation [79]. Similarly, CBD in the prelimbic cortex reduced conditioned freezing [70], an effect prevented by 5-HT1AR blockade [87]. By contrast, CBD microinjection in the infralimbic cortex enhanced conditioned freezing [70]. Finally, El Batsh et al. [80] reported that repeated CBD doses over 21 days, that is chronic as opposed to acute treatment, facilitated conditioned freezing. In this study, CBD was administered prior to conditioning rather than prior to re-exposure as in acute studies, thus further directly comparable studies are required.
In summary: smaller doses of CBD provide you with a calm and relaxed focus that comes in handy during everything from writing to music to parties to workouts – very similar to what you would experience with THC, but without the psychoactive or paranoia properties. And if you combine these smaller doses of CBD with common natural sleep-inducing compounds like melatonin, magnesium, or lemon balm, then you can get yourself into an even more relaxed state. But larger doses of CBD (which are going to range based on the actual absorption of whichever CBD blend you are using) can be used all by themselves to enhance sleep or combat insomnia.
In a 2011 study, scientists wanted to study the effects of CBD on people with SAD. The scientists selected 24 people with this condition who had never received treatment for SAD then divided participants into two groups. One group received 600 mg of CBD while the control group received a placebo. The scientists then asked study participants to take part in a simulated public speaking test while researchers measured blood pressure, heart rate and other measurements of physiological and psychological stress.
Because CBD oil products are mostly unregulated, there’s no guarantee that any given product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2017 found that nearly 70 percent of all CBD products sold online are incorrectly labeled, and could cause serious harm to consumers. Some CBD oils may also contain incorrectly labeled amounts of THC and other compounds.
CBD is showing real promise as a compound that can contribute to protecting the brain, thanks to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities. Scientists are investigating its role in neurogenesis and its ability to help the brain heal from injury, and as a treatment for neurodegenerative disease. Research suggests that CBD may help to reduce brain damage from stroke or other neurological injury. And CBD is increasingly looked to as a possible therapy for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and multiple sclerosis.
Among the cannabinoids in cannabis, the main psychoactive compound, THC, often outshines the one that provides a natural anti-anxiety, anti-epileptic and antipsychotic effect. Cannabidiol, or CBD oil, lacks the colorful high commonly associated with your traditional marijuana high and doesn’t have much of a noticeable effect when isolated. When combined with THC, the relaxing effect combats any feelings of paranoia or panic that can sometimes be felt under the influence. While lauded for its effect on epilepsy, recent cannabis research has identified CBD as the component responsible for a great deal of marijuana’s medical benefits.
"We still don't fully understand all of the mechanisms involved in CBD's actions," says Marcel Bonn-Miller, Ph.D, who studies CBD and its effects, primarily on PTSD. "We know some pieces but definitely not the whole story at this point. A lot of our understanding of the many potential benefits of CBD is rooted in work either on the cellular level or in preclinical models with rodents."

CBD oil products can be somewhat expensive, which may be a barrier for individuals seeking treatment or relief from different conditions and disorders. cbdMD is a notable exception as far as price-point is concerned. cbdMD offers it’s premium, non-THC oils at a large variety of concentrations (300mg-5,00mg) as well as sizes (30mL and 60mL) . These oils are priced at $28 for 300mg oils and $90 for 1,500mg oils; both price-points are significantly below average.
CBD oil works by activating the vanniloid (TRPV1), adenosine, and serotonin receptors in your body. It is the initiation of adenosine receptors that provides an anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory result. It is also causes the release of dopamine and glutamate, two neurotransmitters that play major roles inside the body and are involved in feelings of well being.
In regards to CBD companies that sell their products online, here at Marijuanabreak we try not to play favorites and that’s why we’ve decided to give two top picks instead of just one. Based on quality and service, we would we say check out www.purekana.com and greenroadsworld.com. After reviewing all of the companies above, we found that not only do these two companies carry some of the finest hemp-based CBD oils on the market, they also have the strongest and purest quality product. PureKana in particular has perfected the process of removing lipids and fats to create a 99% pure CBD crystal.
Rick Cannabis Oil was successfully used in curing my Mother Breast 3 months as stated in the dosage information provided by rick Simpson. Once again i want to thank Rick for his wonderful Cannabis Oil, Our family and friends are now very much happier since my mum has been cured by this wonderful cancerous treatment done with Rick Simpson Cannabis oil our family pride has been restore back again with Rick Simpson Cannabis oil What a miracle. My mother is now back alive, strong and healthy this fact was confirmed by our family Dr. you have the right to stop cancer with Rick Simpson cannabis oil medication please email him now and spread the good work of Rick Simpson.
Kevin Sabet, a psychiatrist at the University of Florida’s Drug Policy Institute, presented a six-point plan whose purpose is accelerating officially sanctioned serious research in the properties of cannabidiol and relaxing barriers for private actors interested in the matter, who would nevertheless pursue this avenue in a grayer area and thus, less safe.
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Hi Ben. What are your thoughts on the differences, if any, between CBD extracted from hemp (legal to buy for anyone in the US) and CBD extracted from medical cannabis? My instinct is that once extracted, they should be identical because we’re talking about a specific molecule (similar to how ascorbic acid extracted from an orange or bell pepper or made in a lab are identical). However, I had some CBD oil from a major retail website that did not do much for my insomnia, even at high doses. Then I tried some CBD oil from my medical marijuana doc that he claimed was pure CBD (meaning no THC, but I am not sure if there are other terpenes) and of higher quality because it was extracted from medical grade cannabis. I was totally skeptical, but ending up feeling it big time – very calming, almost like being high, but without the random racing thoughts that THC gives me. I am wondering if it’s worth it to shell out for my doc’s product (it is super expensive), or if I should just try another version of hemp-based CBD, such as the one you recommend.
Just wanted to share with you that I have been ordering oil for my sister-in-law who had a Glioblastoma Multiform Brain Tumour. After surgery, 6 weeks of radiotherapy and 3 months of chemo (plus your amazing M10P treatments), my sister-in-law is tumour free as of today! Thank you so much for the service you provide. Feel free to share this story with other members who need a boost and some good news! Thanks again
Studies in humans, including many of those cited below, have demonstrated that CBD dosage reduces anxiety (once again, compared to the increased levels of anxiety that THC produces), and that when you combine CBD with THC, it takes the anxiety edge off THC. This is due to the action of CBD on 5HT1A and TRPV1 receptors, both of which are involved in mitigating the anxiolytic, panic and fear responses to stress.
[422] M. H. N. Chagas, A. L. Eckeli, A. W. Zuardi, M. A. Pena-Pereira, M. A. Sobreira-Neto, E. T. Sobreira, M. R. Camilo, M. M. Bergamaschi, C. H. Schenck, J. E. C. Hallak, V. Tumas, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Cannabidiol Can Improve Complex Sleep-Related Behaviours Associated with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Case Series,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 39 (2014): 564–566. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179.
Stage III Vulvar Cancer is visiting my body. I am taking CBD oil from the dispensary in Massachusetts. I put a rice grain size rubbed inside my mouth under my tongue. It is so terrible tasting, especially now with Chemo and Radiation, my stomach is ok, but I am getting almost nausea when putting the CBD Oil on my gums. Can I take it rectally or vaginally? Have you ever heard of this? Is it still just as effective as taken orally. I am only doing this because of my condition. It does help me sleep and I am more relaxed. I just wish I did not have to taste or smell it.
Summary: Early research has found that CBD oil has the potential to reduce chronic pain, anxiety, depression and acne, and may help those overcoming addiction. Its anti-inflammatory properties may also play a role in lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has even shown anti-tumor effects and could be effective in inhibiting the progression of cancer and its related symptoms.
I’m considering this for my dog, a 50 pound border collie. She has muscle weakness in her back legs likely due to an injury several years ago and now those legs are also spasming at times when she walks. The vet put her on rimadyl (an anti-inflammatory nsaid specifically for dogs) and symptoms improved for several months but are now regressing. We’re guessing inflammation is at the root of it. She’s 13 and we’re willing to take on the risks of CBD although they seem to be low to none but wondering if there would be different considerations for her weight and species. Maybe a half capsule at morning and again at night? Or should we start with a whole one? Thank you!

Some studies show that CBD can counteract these adverse effects, but more research is needed, as most of this research is done on animals or is based on anecdotal reports. Little research has focused on the safety and side effects of CBD in humans; however, clinical trials indicate that only a few, generally mild side effects have been observed after CBD administration and tolerance for CBD does not seem to occur.
Receptors for cannabinoids are found in the digestive, reproductive, nervous, and immune systems. Because cannabinoids interact with almost every system in our bodies, they’re often touted as a cure-all. While they’re not truly able to heal everything, they do regulate neurotransmitter function, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and metabolism.

I have had RA for 21 yrs. This is the only product that I actually see, with my own eyes daily, my arthritic nodules shrinking big time. OMGosh, within 18 hours of taking the tendon nodules on my right wrist were GONE! o more need for wrist braces I have needed for years. I have friends that are experiencing great results to for fibromyalsia and chronic back pain!
A 2013 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology reports that CBD protects against the vascular damage caused by a high glucose environment, inflammation or the induction of type 2 diabetes in animal models; plus, CBD proved to reduce the vascular hyperpermeability (which causes leaky gut) associated with such environments. (18)

It’s not just anxiety. Uncontrolled inflammation is also associated with depression and psychotic disorders. Lately I’ve been thinking about combining cannabinoid with low dose naltrexone an opioid receptor antagonist. My thinking is that since CBD also interacts with opioid receptors, as an allosoteric modulator, that by blocking those receptors we may get some novel interactions that I think may be beneficial for anxiety and other inflammatory related disorders.
Using a process called “hybrid-nanoengineering” it is actually possible to get a highly bioavailable and absorbable form of CBD. The way that hybrid-nanoengineering works is that the cannabinoids and terpenoids are extracted from the hemp plant, combined with an Ayurvedic herbal blend and then processed into nanoparticle size. Nanoparticles (1/100 the width of a human hair) are easier for your body to absorb and transport to where they are needed within your body. This means that a hybrid-nanoengineered CBD is over 10x more bioavailable in the body than any other oil based CBD, CBD tincture or CBD capsule, and that just 10mg of a nanoparticle CBD is comparable to 100mg of standard CBD.
CBD hemp oil is derived from certain Cannabis varieties known as Hemp. Representing 40% of all Cannabis extracts, it is the second most abundant of 85 chemicals known as Cannabinoids, that are all present in Cannabis plants. Unfortunately, however, the most intoxicating part of Cannabis known as THC, which is responsible for the so-called “high” that brought about its popularity among Marijuana users, is also the most abundant

As per the blog says, I’ve been relieved from the chronic pain by CBD Oil. About half a year ago I was suffering from chronic pain in my head and any of the medicines were not working on me. I’ve changed many doctors but none of them was able to do the treatment of that. One day, one of my friends suggested me to try CBD oil for the chronic pain. I did some research about CBD online and ended up purchasing the CBD Oil from All Natural Way. I start taking CBD Oil daily and after some days my pain got vanished. I really liked the CBD products and happy to have it. Now I and my family take CBD in our daily life to stay healthy. I recommend taking CBD Oil for everyone.
Cannabis Oil: Cannabis oil is typically made from marijuana with a high THC percentage. Therefore, it must be purchased in an area where marijuana is legal or can be obtained with a prescription. The amounts of compounds, including CBD and THC, will drastically vary from product to product. Commercially produced cannabis oils will have more controlled concentrations of CBD and THC for medical purposes.
Full spectrum CBD does, however, bring with it the sticky issue of THC. The government regulates concentration levels of THC at 0.3 percent, an amount which results in minimal psychoactivity. But THC metabolites are stored in the fat cells of your body, building up over time. If you ever need to take a drug test, this could create an issue for you.

As you’ve probably already heard, the hemp plant itself is a highly useful plant, and every part of it has been used to make a wide variety of products, including biofuel and medicine. Biofuel made from hemp seeds is far less expensive and more effective than ethanol derived from corn. If there weren’t so many federal restrictions, growing hemp would highly benefit any agricultural state, but unfortunately most states must pay an absurdly high premium to import hemp seeds. And of course, as you’re probably aware, both THC and CBD seem to be immersed in a constant struggle of medical legality that I simply don’t have the time to address in this post.
In a 2011 study, scientists wanted to study the effects of CBD on people with SAD. The scientists selected 24 people with this condition who had never received treatment for SAD then divided participants into two groups. One group received 600 mg of CBD while the control group received a placebo. The scientists then asked study participants to take part in a simulated public speaking test while researchers measured blood pressure, heart rate and other measurements of physiological and psychological stress.
At the federal level, CBD is classified as a Schedule 1 drug in the U.S. because it is one of the many cannabinoids present in marijuana. To be labeled a schedule 1 drug means that it has a high potential for abuse and the potential to create severe psychological or physical dependence; therefore these drugs are not allowed to be used for medical use.
While it is still classed illegal on a Federal level, individual U.S. states have adopted a more lenient policy towards this plant and some states now allow it for recreational use. The easing up of state laws has also allowed researchers to explore this miraculous plant and only recently has it been found to be an effective treatment for a variety of medical problems due to its CBD oil benefits. From cancer, anorexia, pain and inflammation management it seems like medical marijuana is placing a strong footing within the medical industry.

Anxiolytic effects of CBD in models of generalized anxiety have been linked to specific receptor mechanisms and brain regions. The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is integral to anxiety, orchestrating autonomic and behavioral responses to threat [91], and DPAG stimulation in humans produces feelings of intense distress and dread [92]. Microinjection of CBD into the DPAG produced anxiolytic effects in the EPM, VGC, and ETM that were partially mediated by activation of 5-HT1ARs but not by CB1Rs [65, 68]. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) serves as a principal output structure of the amygdaloid complex to coordinate sustained fear responses, relevant to anxiety [93]. Anxiolytic effects of CBD in the EPM and VCT occurred upon microinjection into the BNST, where they depended on 5-HT1AR activation [79], and also upon microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala [78]. In the prelimbic cortex, which drives expression of fear responses via connections with the amygdala [94], CBD had more complex effects: in unstressed rats, CBD was anxiogenic in the EPM, partially via 5-HT1AR receptor activation; however, following acute restraint stress, CBD was anxiolytic [87]. Finally, the anxiolytic effects of systemic CBD partially depended on GABAA receptor activation in the EPM model but not in the VCT model [61, 62].
Cohen has found that chronic conditions including autoimmune diseases and pain syndromes can be helped with a 6-mg under-the-tongue tincture (the fastest delivery system) or a 25-mg capsule taken twice a day. Dosages for topical products like lotions are especially hard to determine—there’s no clarity on how much CBD gets into the system through the skin.

Canabidol™ CBD Cannabis Oil (CBD Oli)– Available in 25%,50% and 75% concentrations. Our proprietary engineering process has been developed to isolate and remove any unwanted compounds, while creating the maximum potency level of phytocannabinoids.  State-of-the-art technology is employed to ensure a full-spectrum oil, that includes both high levels of Canabidiol, Cannabinoids and terpenes. This guarantees a consistent, pure, and premium product for our customers
“It is important to remember that CBD benefits and improves the activity in the endocannabinoid system by increasing the time anandamide works on the CB1 and CB2 receptors,” writes Dr. Michael Moskowitz. “Anandamide works on the serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine systems. It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low. This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety.”[321]
Still, as the saying goes, absence of evidence isn’t necessarily evidence of absence, and there’s a reason we don’t have a ton of solid research on CBDs yet — “to study it, we need a good source, ” said Ziva Cooper, who is an associate professor at Columbia University and was on the National Academies committee. CBD is hard to get because it’s still technically a Schedule I drug, which limits its availability, Cooper said.
Right now, there’s a good chance that you don’t really know what you’re getting from any source. Testing and labeling rules vary by state, but many states that allow legal cannabis also require some kind of testing to verify that the THC and CBD levels listed on the label are accurate. However, this testing is controversial, and results can vary widely between labs, Jikomes said. A study published in March found measurable variations in test results, with some labs consistently reporting higher or lower levels of cannabinoids than others. There are no guarantees that the label accurately reflects what’s in the product. For a 2015 study published in JAMA, researchers tested 75 products purchased in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle and found that only 17 percent were accurately labeled. More than half of the products contained significantly lower levels of cannabinoids than the label promised, and some of them contained only negligible amounts of the compounds. “We need to come up with ways to confidently verify the composition of cannabis products and make this information available to consumers,” Jikomes said.
Hi Ben. What are your thoughts on the differences, if any, between CBD extracted from hemp (legal to buy for anyone in the US) and CBD extracted from medical cannabis? My instinct is that once extracted, they should be identical because we’re talking about a specific molecule (similar to how ascorbic acid extracted from an orange or bell pepper or made in a lab are identical). However, I had some CBD oil from a major retail website that did not do much for my insomnia, even at high doses. Then I tried some CBD oil from my medical marijuana doc that he claimed was pure CBD (meaning no THC, but I am not sure if there are other terpenes) and of higher quality because it was extracted from medical grade cannabis. I was totally skeptical, but ending up feeling it big time – very calming, almost like being high, but without the random racing thoughts that THC gives me. I am wondering if it’s worth it to shell out for my doc’s product (it is super expensive), or if I should just try another version of hemp-based CBD, such as the one you recommend.

Dosage is important, because CBD can have side effects—the most common are tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite and weight—so it’s best not to take more than you need. As CBD becomes more prevalent, says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, “I’m reasonably certain new kinds of side effects will emerge.”


This is because hemp actually contains a whole host of other valuable properties - so it becomes a bit of a 'buy one, get a ton of other stuff free' type situation. In Celtic Wind Crops' CBD oil, powder and capsules, users will benefit from an intake of amino acids, omegas, flavonoids, vitamins, minerals and more along with the desired CBD. Essentially, it could be all your food supplements rolled into one.
The endocannabinoid system is a newly discovered and complex biological system that’s not that well understood yet. What is understood is that the body has cannabinoid  receptors throughout the central nervous system, the organs and the brain. These receptors are known as the endocannabinoid system. When the body naturally releases endocannabinoid chemicals (or you ingest them through a tincture) they connect with the receptors and that stimulates the body’s natural ability to create serotonin, a natural mood stabilizer.
As with a fermented food like kombucha, slight natural variations are normal and to be expected in a product such as CBD oil because it is made from living plants. Changes in the weather, soil, and water can all impact the biology of the source material. While we verify Certificates of Analysis (and take many other criteria into consideration during our review process), even the most reputable five-star companies have no way to control for every variable in this organic process.
I always keep CBD oil around to take when I'm feeling in need of relief from my anxiety, rare bouts of insomnia, or even occasional back pain. I haven't experienced any negative effects from taking CBD, and I definitely look forward to reading more research on its efficacy as it becomes available. I don't take it daily, maybe just a couple of times a week now, but I like knowing it's available should I need a boost (whether or not it's the placebo effect).
Now of course, you could stop reading here and scroll down to fill yourself in on all the benefits of CBD oil, and the specific conditions for which it can come in handy. But I actually find the history of cannabis quite fascinating, especially given America’s persistent widespread disapproval and/or fear of its use. It’s not like this stuff just popped up like Red Bull energy drinks, ecstasy, Lunesta, or Adderall. Instead I’d kinda clump cannabis right in with organic vegetables and essential oils.
I have/had ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. I used thc/cbd oil pills I self made from the start. I am supposedly their “poster child”. I went thru with chemo and surgery. Oh that horror! But when I tried to tell two seperate doctors, the surgeon was all about it, and my oncologist threw a fit and said it was an anecdote. There are more than 100 studies at the NIH govt website.
Cannabidiol oil is extracted from the varieties of cannabis plants that have CBD occurring naturally in large amounts and THC in low amounts. To ensure a high concentration of CBD in the oil, a specialized process is used to extract the compound. The oil contains other compounds like terpenes, omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids, chlorophyll, vitamins, and phytocannabinoids like cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidivarin, and cannabinol.
Anxiety Disorder Association of America (ADAA) conducts research every year to find out the statistics increase or decrease. The studies conducted over a period of 10 years have revealed that 54 percent of the women while 46 percent of the men suffer from the anxiety disorders. But some studies also believe that the numbers of men who suffer from the anxiety issues are much higher than that of the women. It is just that they do not report their problem to the doctors or do not seek out for help until something significant problem occurs.
Anxiolytic effects of CBD in models of generalized anxiety have been linked to specific receptor mechanisms and brain regions. The midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is integral to anxiety, orchestrating autonomic and behavioral responses to threat [91], and DPAG stimulation in humans produces feelings of intense distress and dread [92]. Microinjection of CBD into the DPAG produced anxiolytic effects in the EPM, VGC, and ETM that were partially mediated by activation of 5-HT1ARs but not by CB1Rs [65, 68]. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) serves as a principal output structure of the amygdaloid complex to coordinate sustained fear responses, relevant to anxiety [93]. Anxiolytic effects of CBD in the EPM and VCT occurred upon microinjection into the BNST, where they depended on 5-HT1AR activation [79], and also upon microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala [78]. In the prelimbic cortex, which drives expression of fear responses via connections with the amygdala [94], CBD had more complex effects: in unstressed rats, CBD was anxiogenic in the EPM, partially via 5-HT1AR receptor activation; however, following acute restraint stress, CBD was anxiolytic [87]. Finally, the anxiolytic effects of systemic CBD partially depended on GABAA receptor activation in the EPM model but not in the VCT model [61, 62].
Cannabidiol Oil, or CBD as it’s more commonly known, has recently moved to the forefront in the medical cannabis diaspora. It’s a rising star, boasting wide-ranging health benefits.Cannabidiol CBD is one of at least 85 known cannabinoids. These are compounds found in the cannabis plant. Unlike its infamous cousin THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), however, CBD has no psychoactive properties whatsoever.
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