Leonard Leinow has three decades of experience growing and studying medical cannabis and brings a unique spiritual perspective to his work. In 2009, he formed Synergy Wellness, a not-for-profit medical cannabis collective in California. Synergy Wellness has over 3,500 members in its collective and is an artisan organization making hand-crafted organic and natural whole plant-based products. They are specialists in CBD (cannabidiol), the non-psychoactive portion of cannabis, and are pioneers in this aspect of the industry. Leinow is known for his proprietary blends of tinctures and medicine used for cancer and epilepsy patients.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.

Some studies show that CBD can counteract these adverse effects, but more research is needed, as most of this research is done on animals or is based on anecdotal reports. Little research has focused on the safety and side effects of CBD in humans; however, clinical trials indicate that only a few, generally mild side effects have been observed after CBD administration and tolerance for CBD does not seem to occur.
CBD Oil, derived from agricultural hemp, has been widely recognized for its many benefits on human health. It has grown in popularity amongst the medical community as a key supplement for maintaining homeostasis. Because CBD oil has the ability to talk to nearly every organ system in the body via the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) this plant-based nutrient plays a key role in optimizing balance and enhancing quality of life.

Hi, In your wonderful CBD overview above you state that the reason you started using CBD oil in the first place was to lower your cortisol levels. Did you succeed? If you are comfortable with doing so can you share the ‘before’ levels and the ‘after’ levels? Or maybe just the amount of the drop (average)..?? And, was this CBD product you now sell the one that you were using then?


CBD also blocked reconsolidation of aversive memories in rat [76]. Briefly, fear memories, when reactivated by re-exposure (retrieval), enter into a labile state in which the memory trace may either be reconsolidated or extinguished [97], and this process may be pharmacologically modulated to achieve reconsolidation blockade or extinction. When administered immediately following retrieval, CBD prevented freezing to the conditioned context upon further re-exposure, and no reinstatement or spontaneous recovery was observed over 3 weeks, consistent with reconsolidation blockade rather than extinction [76]. This effect depended on CB1R activation but not 5-HT1AR activation [76].
While there are more unknowns than knowns at this point, Grant says he doesn’t discount all the anecdotal CBD reports. “You hear somebody say, ‘Hey, I gave this to myself and my kid and we feel a lot better,’ and we should never dismiss that kind of information,” he says. He points out that many modern medicines were discovered when researchers followed up on exactly this sort of human trial-and-error evidence. “But we still need to do the studies that confirm whether all the good things are true, and how much to give, and how to give it,” he says. “These are all questions that need to be answered.”
Several studies point to the potential benefits of CBD for anxiety. For generalized anxiety, the National Institute on Drug Abuse says that CBD has been shown to reduce stress in animal studies. Study subjects were observed as having lower behavioral signs of anxiety. Their physiological symptoms of anxiety, like increased heart rate, also improved.
This is just a small sample of the research showing the role that CBD plays in reducing stress and reducing anxiety. I’ve found that as little as 10mg CBD vastly lowers my anxiety at the end of the day, and have dosed with as high as 100mg CBD to be as calm as a baby during trans-Atlantic plane flights, nights sleeping in hotel rooms, and other situations where I have difficulty sleeping or tend to be stressed out. The stuff works like a charm, and saves me from having to hunt down an unhealthy, addictive alternative like valium or diazepam.
The Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders have found that the mRNA level for cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) was significantly increased in children with altered immune responses linked to autism. The mRNA level for cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) was significantly increased in these children, which led them to conclude that “ data indicates CB2 receptor as a potential therapeutic target for the pharmacological management of the autism care.”  View Source

Multiple sclerosis (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.


...with due respect, your experience Locsta is almost precisely what happened with my....chihuahua. Degenerative disc disease, excruciating pain, prednisone worked, but couldn't keep her on it..pain killers and muscle relaxants didn't help, really thought I would have to put her down. Chi bloggers suggested CBD; gave PetReleaf a shot--like you, literally within minutes I could see the difference, in days she was pain free and now is back in charge of our world. The real key here is that with my dog, there is zero, nada, chance that there was any placebo effect...

@parus i just got my certification for medical marijuana. Upon buying what was recommended I was given CBD oil, I’ve not been on it a week yet today will be my fourth day of using it. It takes about 1/2 hour to work but it seems to help. They also gave me a cannabinol patch to use at night fir the severe itch in my head from the shingles. Also a vape two puffs as needed for the itch break through which I have not tried yet. I’m a bit anxious about using it.
CBD Oil for Anxiety. Each of us has had reason to be scared in a certain situation before. This reaction to a particular situation is normal and natural. However, when fear takes over and can be triggered by seemingly harmless everyday situations, panic attacks, deep feeling of fear, sweating, one speaks of anxiety. Many are wondering what to do about it and can CBD help with anxiety?

For people who suffer from insomnia, constant anxiety during the night or simply struggle to get a sound, restful night of undisturbed sleep, cannabis sativa essential oil may work like a charm. However, according to a research report published by Dr. Ethan Russo, Director of Research for the International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute, terpenoids produce an “entourage effect”.


In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex (a drug made with a purified form of CBD oil) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years of age and older. These two epilepsy forms are known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana.
Parkinson’s disease. Some early research shows that taking cannabidiol daily for 4 weeks improves psychotic symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease and psychosis. But taking a specific cannabis extract (Cannador) that contains THC and cannabidiol does not appear to improve involuntary muscle movements caused by the anti-Parkinson’s drug levodopa in people with Parkinson’s disease.
As noted, CBD has been found to have a bell-shaped response curve, with higher doses being ineffective. This may reflect activation of TRPV1 receptors at higher dose, as blockade of TRPV1 receptors in the DPAG rendered a previously ineffective high dose of CBD as anxiolytic in the EPM [66]. Given TRPV1 receptors have anxiogenic effects, this may indicate that at higher doses, CBD’s interaction with TRPV1 receptors to some extent impedes anxiolytic actions, although was notably not sufficient to produce anxiogenic effects.

No, pure CBD oil does not contain THC, and therefore would not affect a drug test testing for THC. Most widely-used drug tests are comprised of an immunoassay that has antibodies for detecting metabolites that are produced from the oxidation of THC. These drug tests do not have cross-reactivity to CBD. Therefore, they give negative results when only pure CBD is used. One study of CBD oil users revealed that unlike THC, CBD does not show up on drug tests (source.)


CBD and THC interact with body cells by activating the cannabinoid receptors. By transmitting signals throughout our bodies, these receptors cause different physiological effects. Some cannabinoids are beneficial to us, while others cause undesirable psychotropic effects in our bodies such as “highs” or depression. Some of these substances cause both. There are as yet no studies that show undesirable effects from Cannabidiol, which is why it is legal worldwide. However, many studies show that CBD causes only desirable effects or no effects at all. Certain studies also show that CBD protects against the negative effects of THC. Note that a whole lot of research on Cannabidiol is still in the pipeline.

So am I to assume, due to no response/deleted comment that my simple question was too difficult to answer? With all the technical & correct information you have on you GREAT website, can someone (?) not simply correct or acknowledge the FACT the your NOT using nano-particle size product? I am truly interesting (for my wife) in CBD, have done my research, and I love working with numbers which is why if found this discrepancy. Comments welcome, but avoidance is disturbing.
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