Canabidol™ Oral Capsules deliver 100% Cannabis Sativa L. from specifically bred industrial hemp plants containing high potency Cannabidiol. Each CBD capsule contains all the Cannabinoids, terpenoids, essential oils and all the other compounds of the cannabis plant. A packet of 30 capsules contains 15,000mg of Cannabis Sativa L. and 300mg of CBD (Cannabidiol) Each capsule contains 500mg of Cannabis Sativa L. and 10mg of the active ingredient CBD
As a consumer, you can look at the manufacturer's website to see whether they batch-test their products, or ask them directly. You could also send a sample of your CBD oil to a testing facility yourself, something Bonn-Miller says he would do if he were trying to treat someone with a severe issue such as epilepsy. Testing can also determine whether the product contains pesticides, heavy metals, or other toxins.

Weight plays a role in the effects of CBD oil, and bottle size should be selected based on how much you weigh. Let’s say you weigh less than 130 pounds and desire light CBD oil effects; this means that 11 mg or less will probably suffice per dose, giving roughly 40 doses from a 450-mg concentration. If you weigh more than 230 pounds and desire strong effects, then this same concentration will supply roughly 10 doses. 


According to the largest study to date, researchers reported that after treating 162 patients with an extract of 99% cannabidiol (CBD), for a 12 week period. the intervention reduced motor seizures at a rate similar to existing drugs ( a median of 36.5 percent) and 2% of patients became completely seizure free. Other studies have shown that it can act as an anticonvulsant.
The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. When applied topically as an infused lotion, serum, oil, or salve, the antioxidant (a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins E and C)[194] in CBD oil has many benefits and can repair damage from free radicals like UV rays and environmental pollutants. Cannabinoid receptors can be found in the skin and seem to be connected to the regulation of oil production in the sebaceous glands.[195] Cannabis-based topical products are being developed to treat related issues from acne to psoriasis and can promote faster healing of damaged skin. In fact, historical documents show that cannabis preparations have been used for wound healing in both animals and people in a range of cultures spanning the globe and going back thousands of years. The use of concentrated cannabis and CBD oils to benefit and treat skin cancer is gaining popularity with a number of well-documented cases of people curing both melanoma and carcinoma-type skin cancers with the topical application of CBD and THC products. Best known is the case of Rick Simpson, who cured his basal cell carcinoma with cannabis oil and now has a widely distributed line of products. Cannabis applied topically is not psychoactive.

Premature aging associated with chronic nervous tension is also related to increased oxidative stress. For example, in a remarkable animal study, examination of the brains of sacrificed animals showed that 85% of the brain cells observed in the animals exposed to chronic stress showed signs of degeneration. It is this type of cellular degeneration that can lead to long-term cognitive difficulties. Amazingly, when ashwagandha was administered to chronically stressed animals, the number of degenerating brain cells was reduced by 80%.


I started using marijuana as a teen. The main reason that kept me using it was the fact that it made my stomach stop hurting. I thought I just had anxiety problems or an ulcer. I have no Idea It’s one of the reason that supress the pain I feel after I read this article from http://www.ilovegrowingmarijuana.com/cbd-in-medic…. Since reading is not my thing back then.
While researchers are calling for more robust studies on the role of CBD on mood disorders, there is promising research that points to CBD’s role as an anxiolytic – which means it has anti-anxiety effects. Another study showed CBD to have antidepressant effects comparable to those of the prescription antidepressant Imipramine. We noted above that CBD increases levels of glutamate and serotonin – and it’s these same neurotransmitters that play a crucial role in mood regulation.
A 2016 review of animal studies indicated that cannabidiol has potential as an anxiolytic for relief of anxiety-related disorders and fear.[11] Reviews of preliminary research showed cannabidiol has potential for improving addictive disorders and drug dependence, although as of 2016, they indicated limited high-quality evidence for anti-addictive effects in people.[93][20][94]

Another major reason why CBD oil has been positively received in some parts of the medical community is its apparent effect on cancer and tumor growth.A study done by the researchers of the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Rostock, Germany recommends the use of CBD oil (even direct injection into tumors) to eliminate or reduce the size of the tumors. The antioxidants in CBD hemp oil also provide anti-mutagenic properties and lower users’ risk of cancer.


But from joint pain to irritable bowel syndrome to diabetic retinopathy, CBD has been shown to modulate both acute and chronic inflammatory issues via several different mechanisms, and from the research I’ve seen and cited below, it’s even more powerful than many of the commonly recommend natural remedies for inflammation, such as curcumin, fish oil, resveratrol, anti-oxidants, proteolytic enzymes, Vitamin C, etc.
Bacon had said that I might need to try two full droppers worth of the oil to really feel its benefits. I knew that I had an incredibly busy and stressful day ahead of me—I needed to fit in a five mile run before work, had lots to do at the office, was scheduled for a busy event in the middle of the day, and had a 2-hour meditation class later that night which would require a lot of mental clarity. Tentatively, I squirted two droppers of CBD oil into my bulletproof coffee and sipped away.
Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses essential to coping with threats to survival. Yet excessive or persistent fear may be maladaptive, leading to disability. Symptoms arising from excessive fear and anxiety occur in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Notably, PTSD and OCD are no longer classified as anxiety disorders in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5; however, excessive anxiety is central to the symptomatology of both disorders. These anxiety-related disorders are associated with a diminished sense of well-being, elevated rates of unemployment and relationship breakdown, and elevated suicide risk [1–3]. Together, they have a lifetime prevalence in the USA of 29 % [4], the highest of any mental disorder, and constitute an immense social and economic burden [5, 6].

Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Cannabidiol has shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder and researchers suggest that it may also be effective for panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. (7)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the 100+ cannabinoids found in cannabis and has been the subject of much research due to its many and varied medical applications. But it’s not only its therapeutic attributes that have sparked such widespread interest in CBD in recent years. The compound is also nonpsychoactive (meaning it does not produce the ‘high’ associated with cannabis use), making it a safe and effective option for patients who may be concerned about the mind altering effects of other cannabinoids such as THC.
CBDPure oils are made from domestic Colorado-grown organic hemp. Unlike most other CBD oil brands that we put to the test, CBDPure’s oil contains full spectrum cannabinoids and terpenes, enhancing the oil’s therapeutic effect. Their hemp oil is 100% free of synthetic and artificial ingredients, and every batch is tested for potency and quality by third-party labs.
I assume this is also a side effect of the eased anxiety, but I seem to fall asleep within the 20- to 30-minute range rather than my normal 45 minutes to one hour (or longer). Not only do I seem to be skipping (or at least shortening) the whole tossing-and-turning phase of my sleep cycle, but I'm able to snap out of the overthinking mindset that often keeps me up at night. Of course, there's no telling whether a big life event would kindly disrupt this newfound bliss, but I'd like to think it's helped on day-to-day basis.
Francesca Fusco, MD, a dermatologist based in New York City, recently told Health that CBD oil is a rich source of fatty acids and other skin-healthy nutrients, and that it may improve hydration and minimize moisture loss. A few studies have also suggested that CBD oil may inhibit the growth of acne, although this hypothesis has only been tested in laboratory cell cultures—not in actual humans.
Hi Lauren I've just started today with 250mg cbd oil. I'm starting low to see what happens. I've nerve damage across buttocks from a laminectomy. I've not been able to sit for 5 years. I've recently started with a muscle spasm in my left buttock and the muscle above is painful. It is only the first day, also tried a cbd night time tea as well. Do change in muscle pain so tight on my left hand side. How long before felt it starting to work please. I'm trying not to expect changes straightaway. I also take 1100mg gabapentin and 30mg amitriptyline and I hate both of them - they both can cause muscle tightness affecting the nerve. Thank you Lyn
Spanish scientists via their animal studies found that CBD improves the transmission of 5-HT1A, which is a sub-type of receptor of serotonin hormone. It is known that medicines which target the body’s serotonin system can help treat some cases of depression and dealing with anxiety. This is the reason why pharmaceuticals companies have made SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Zoloft and Prozac.
My question is specifically regarding CBD interactions with the endocannabinoid or limbic system and a mention made in your post regarding homeostasis. In April of this year I got a tube of "high CBD" oil which was foul tasting and made me gag. It did not sit well and my digestion went off. The company said that there was nothing wrong but by the end of the month I was in trouble. I stopped taking CBD and basically had an emotional breakdown. I went to a therapist to find out how and why I had basically lost homeostasis – precisely how I summarized my condition.
The father of French psycho-pharmacology, Dr. Jean-Jacques Moreau de Tours, used the cannabis plant to treat depression, another condition still widely treated with cannabis in the modern era. Later, during the Revolutionary War, soldiers were paid with cannabis, and presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson encouraged farmers to grow more hemp to produce more rope and paper, as well as clothing and ship sails (which dates back to the Egyptians using hemp sails on their Nile boats 3,000-4,000 years ago). During WWII, American farmers were also asked to grow as much hemp as possible. Last time I checked, the US government isn’t politely asking farmers to grow hemp anymore, although corn and grain subsidies are booming.

Even though most manufacturers claim that CBD does not have any side effects, research says otherwise. Sure, most people can tolerate the impact of CBD just fine, but a small portion of the population have been noted to experience not-so-adverse side effects. According to Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, the most common results are tiredness, change in weight, diarrhea, fatigue.
Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not clear. But cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Also, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety.

Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as an oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[1][3]
Charlotte’s Web is the name of a premium CBD oil company, and the high-CBD strain of hemp from which their products are derived. The brothers who own and operate the company named it after Charlotte Figi, born in October 2006, who made an almost miraculous recovery from a rare and debilitating seizure disorder by using their CBD oil, and inspired them to found the business. Today, the Colorado-based company provides steeply discounted CBD oil to children with seizures and related disorders. Charlotte’s Web’s line of commercial CBD tinctures, capsules and topicals use the same proprietary strain of source hemp, but are formulated to address common issues like inflammation, fatigue, and anxiety. All are made from hemp grown organically and sustainable in Colorado, and subjected to broad-spectrum extraction, which maximizes the Entourage Effect (the capacity of hemp compounds to enhance the therapeutic effects of CBD) by preserving a range of beneficial plant compounds. Their CBD tincture is an excellent choice for treating anxiety, and comes in chocolate or chocolate mint flavors which can be taken directly or added to beverages. This CBD tincture is available in strengths of 10 or 25 mg per ounce, or a more concentrated 50 mg per 0.6 ounce. This oral supplement comes in natural or chocolate mint flavors. Charlotte’s Web’s CBD oil capsules contain the same full-spectrum CBD extracts, and come in concentrations of 15 mg each or 35 mg.
Disclaimer: None of the descriptions/statements made on this website have been evaluated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). The supplements and products discussed on this site are not meant to diagnose, heal, cure, mitigate or obviate any diseases. All articles/information on this website are the opinions of their individual writers who do not profess or claim to be medical experts providing medical guidance. This site is strictly for the mission of giving views of the author. You should discuss with your doctor or another adequate health care expert before you start taking any dietary supplements or involve in mental health programs. Different affiliates support this website, and we receive a commission on specific products from our advertisers. Any and all logos, brand names and service marks presented on this site are the registered or unregistered Trademarks of their respective owners.
And now, onto the thorny issue of legality. The simple answer to the question is yes – if it is extracted from hemp. The 2014 Farm Bill established guidelines for growing hemp in the U.S. legally. This so-called  “industrial hemp” refers to both hemp and hemp products which come from cannabis plants with less than 0.3 percent THC and are grown by a state-licensed farmer.
There are more than 80 cannabinoids found in cannabis plants, with THC being the primary one, followed by CBD. However, in the hemp plant, which is a different strain of the species Cannabis sativa, CBD is the main active ingredient, and THC is barely present, making its use and legality more widespread. The reason that CBD is such an effective form of support for human health is due to the body’s endogenous cannabinoid system. This regulatory structure of the body has millions of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and nervous system, which react not only to plant-derived cannabinoids (such as hemp and marijuana) but also to natural cannabinoids produced within our body. When hemp oil is used and processed by the body, it is effectively boosting the function of the endocannabinoid system, helping our body regulate itself in many different ways.
After months of visiting doctors and sitting through tests like a human lab rat, it was determined that there was a slight anomaly in the anatomy of my temporal lobe—the part of the brain that controls hearing, speech, and auditory comprehension—which explains why every time I have a seizure, I suddenly don’t understand the English language. Epilepsy can’t be cured, so the only course of action available for me was to take a medication every day for the rest of my life. My neurologist prescribed a few different anti-convulsant medications, but they all made me feel tired, depressed, slow, and unlike myself—until finally, I found one that was slightly better than the rest.
If you have a nervous or misbehaving pet, you may be at a loss when it comes to how to help them. Anxiety in dogs can be extremely hard to treat — after all, it’s not like you can have a conversation with your dog to find out what is wrong or how you might be able to help. However, you may have seen CBD making headlines as of late. What is CBD used for when it comes to pets? The answer may surprise you!
If you have ever suffered from anxiety, then you know that it is awful, and it would be the same for your dog too. Many dogs suffer from anxiety and have been known to be depressed and extremely anxious in certain situations, such as when their owner leaves. This can result in destructive behaviors such as chewing objects, urinating, pacing, and more. CBD helps because it is a relaxing stimulant that calms your pet.
This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A Doctor's advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. All trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective owners and are not affiliated with nor do they endorse this product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. By using this site, you agree to follow the Privacy Policy and all Terms & Conditions printed on this site. United States Holds This Patent On CBD

Nonetheless, when it comes to CBD oil and cannabidiol, people seem be getting more aware of the fact that you don’t need to be a pothead to get all the relaxing and hormone and metabolism-balancing properties of weed. Not that the image below is based on hard scientific epidemiological data, but a quick glance at a Google trends profile of searches for “CBD Oil” speaks volumes, doesn’t it?


Until recently, unless you count smoking a very small number of joints at a few random parties in college, about the closest I’ve come to what might be considered “fringe” substance use has been via occasional use of nootropics and herbal extracts like packets of concentrated Chinese herbs, smart drugs like piracetam, anirecatam and alpha-GPC combinations (see my white powder on a kitchen scale video here) and vaporizing nighttime sleep extracts of melatonin and L-theanine (yet another creepy video here).
Studies in humans, including many of those cited below, have demonstrated that CBD dosage reduces anxiety (once again, compared to the increased levels of anxiety that THC produces), and that when you combine CBD with THC, it takes the anxiety edge off THC. This is due to the action of CBD on 5HT1A and TRPV1 receptors, both of which are involved in mitigating the anxiolytic, panic and fear responses to stress.
These manufacturers comprehend CBD oils and moreover represent considerable authority in making a pure CBD crystal that is mainly for treating pressure and anxiety. Their CBD oils are produced in Vanilla and Mint flavours, while their organic products hit the spot. Pure Kana Natural CBD oil is an unflavored, dietary and nutritious supplement for expanded wellbeing and energy. Its mainly for unwinding and because of its mixes, it appears to have a quick impact. All items experience research facility testing to guarantee security and intensity and all their CBD oils are Non-psychoactive.
I put two drops in my coffee (yes, I realize mixing hemp oil with caffeine is a bananas thing to do, but I need coffee and it is recommended on the website). The oil is much less unpleasant to take this way, although it does hugely change the taste of your coffee, so perhaps save it for your instant coffee, rather than your $5 slow-roasted French drip latte.
Almost ten percent of people worldwide deal with acne. It’s a pretty common skin condition, even among adults. A few major factors can cause acne. Those are usually genetic makeup, bacterial infection, underlying skin inflammation, and sebum overproduction. Sebum is an oily secretion that lubricates our skin. It forms inside of sebaceous glands, which are under our skin.

Using a validated model of damaged nerve cells and impaired nerve-signaling pathways, researchers have that demonstrated that ashwagandha supports significant regeneration of the axons and dendrites of nerve cells along with the reconstruction of synapses, the junctions where nerve cells communicate with other cells. This means ashwagandha extract helps to reconstruct entire networks of your nervous system, and has huge implications for any athlete using CBD to manage head injuries or chronic pain.
The regular followers of this blog would know that I suffer from back pain and sleep disorders. So, before I test out CBD products, I give myself a break from CBD to see how the product affects me fully. Fab CBD sells, 4 versions of the CBD Oil with 150mg, 300mg, 600mg and 1200mg. For people who like flavors with their oils, there are different flavors available too.
Industrial Hemp Oil is also from the Cannabis Sativa plant and is the same as Hemp Oil or Hemp Seed OIl. Compared to cannabis Indica, cannabis Sativa (industrial hemp variety) has a much stronger fiber. This fiber can be used in anything from rope and blankets to paper. Marijuana fiber has a low tensile strength and will break or shred easily, making it a poor fibrous plant when compared to industrial hemp. Industrial hemp has low THC levels compared to marijuana specifically cultivated for personal psychoactive use. The reason for the low THC content in hemp is that most THC is formed in resin glands on the buds and flowers of the female cannabis plant. Industrial hemp is not cultivated to produce buds, and therefore lacks the primary component that forms the marijuana high. Furthermore, industrial hemp has higher concentrations of a chemical called Cannabidiol Oil (CBD Oil). 
In general, indica varieties of THC appear to work best as a sleep aid for most people. However, a significant number of people find THC, even indica strains, will make the mind more active. For these people, CBD oil can benefit them and tends to work well, providing the relaxation and calm for the mental as well as the physical body. For these people, CBD taken at nighttime as part of a bedtime regime produces a restful sleep, not the alertness produced in the daytime. This bidirectional effect of CBD is the result of balancing the endocannabinoid system.

Anxiety disorders are far more serious and can prevent you from maintaining a normal life. Some have said that anxiety is not a disease or illness, but rather a physiological, psychological-emotional state that occurs when we behave apprehensively. It turns into a disorder when the worry and the anxiety it creates interfere with your lifestyle. Ongoing anxiety can lead to numerous medical illnesses and even mental issues, if not dealt with.
I used a “cbd tincture 250mg”. After about 3 weeks I started passing blood and protein in urine. I stopped and it cleared up. A couple weeks later I decided to try again and within 3 days it happened again. Could this be due to the type of oil I used or might I have the same problem with any oil I try? It was helping my hip pain and crohns. Thanks!

CBD oil has a wide range of effects on health and has been connected to a diverse number of health problems, ranging from migraines and stress to lack of appetite and sex drive. CBD oil has even been connected to reducing the risk of certain cancers, as well as reducing pain, improving the conditions of the heart, and helping people get a good night’s sleep. There are a number of ways to use CBD oil, depending on what you want relief from.
Among common CBD benefits, natural pain relief tops the list for many. Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in pain modulation by inhibiting neuronal transmission in pain pathways. A 2012 study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that CBD significantly suppressed chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodents without causing analgesic tolerance. Researchers suggest that CBD and other nonpsychoactive components of marijuana may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain. (4)
A report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published in the journal Pediatrics cautions pregnant women and nursing mothers to avoid marijuana use due to possible adverse developmental effects to their baby. In a study reviewed for the report, short-term exposure to CBD was found to increase the permeability of the placental barrier, potentially placing the fetus at risk from certain substances.
Online retailers: Most CBD oils are sold through online retailers. These establishments tend to have the widest product range, and many offer free doorstep delivery. Online retailers also frequently post product reviews, allowing buyers to compare different oils based on customer experiences to determine which is best for them. These reviews can also be used to evaluate the retailer based on customer service, delivery, and product quality.
The anti-emetic and anti-nausea effect of marijuana is a centuries-old known fact. Nevertheless, as early as twenty years ago, the effect was attributed to the actions of THC. Continuous research into other cannabinoids has proven that many other phytocannabinoids produce the same desired effect. At present, the FDA recommends two drugs featuring cannabinoids, in which CBD has the highest concentration, in the treatment of nausea induced by chemotherapy – nabilone and dronabinol. Though in its infancy, promising studies exist which suggest that one day CBD may be incorporated into cancer therapies.
capsules. Tinctures are offered in concentrations of 100 mg, 250 mg, 350mg, 550 mg, 30 ml, 1000 mg, or 1500 mg of crystalline CBD isolates and a broad spectrum of phytocannabinoids. The company’s capsules have a strength of 25 mg CBD, and contain 10% Broad-Spectrum CBD oil 10%, Cannabidiol hemp oil, Safflower oil, and Vegetable cellulose. Another product we recommend for anxiety is their loose-leaf Organic Chamomile CBD Tea. Chamomile has established calming and stomach-soothing effects, and is often used to promote restful sleep. In conjunction with CBD, this botanical contributes to a great product for anxiety-related insomnia. The tea contains 55 mg of CBD, Organic chamomile loose leaf tea, flowers and powder, vanilla, peppermint, and agricultural hemp.

A 2012 research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety, and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies and called for more clinical trials.[239] Two years later, researchers in an animal study related to stress and the endocannabinoid system wrote that augmentation of the endocannabinoid system might be an effective strategy to mitigate behavioral and physical consequences of stress.[240]
A study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and the National Institute of Health discovered that CBD can provide treatment for acne. Researchers used cannabis-derived Cannabidiol on the human sebaceous glands and came to the conclusion that CBD acts as a highly effective sebostatic and anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting lipid synthesis.

While researchers are calling for more robust studies on the role of CBD on mood disorders, there is promising research that points to CBD’s role as an anxiolytic – which means it has anti-anxiety effects. Another study showed CBD to have antidepressant effects comparable to those of the prescription antidepressant Imipramine. We noted above that CBD increases levels of glutamate and serotonin – and it’s these same neurotransmitters that play a crucial role in mood regulation.


The immediate and powerful effects of THC are explained because of the special affinity it has with the CB1 type receptors, which mediate crucial processes in the brain. The less prominent (but no less important) action of CBD was explained, at least for a while, by hypothesizing that it binds to CB2 type receptors, hence its more diffuse manner of exercising changes in the body. Early on, the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol were observed, an aspect which seemed to be in consonance with this initial hypothesis.
At present, we have the following classification of cannabinoids: endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body, mainly from fatty acid precursors), phytocannabinoids (compounds that have a plant origin, with the cannabis plant being the best-studied source of phytocannabinoids though not the only one), and artificial cannabinoids (created while studying THC, to garner the benefits of marijuana without the recreational component).
I just started taking CBD oil , I am on my 2nd Hip replacement surgery due to device failures looking at a 3rd surgery. Has you can imagine the pain, stress and anxiety levels are off the charts. Especially at an otherwise healthy 54 yr women. So i understand from reading posts its best to take it under the tongue. I am taking 1-2 ml a day. I can tell some difference,is your recommended dosage. I am using for pain , stress and sleep. I appreciate your feedback.
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