Leonard Leinow has three decades of experience growing and studying medical cannabis and brings a unique spiritual perspective to his work. In 2009, he formed Synergy Wellness, a not-for-profit medical cannabis collective in California. Synergy Wellness has over 3,500 members in its collective and is an artisan organization making hand-crafted organic and natural whole plant-based products. They are specialists in CBD (cannabidiol), the non-psychoactive portion of cannabis, and are pioneers in this aspect of the industry. Leinow is known for his proprietary blends of tinctures and medicine used for cancer and epilepsy patients.

When Jillian came home for Christmas she and my husband, decided it was time for me to make a decision to do something. I wasn’t ready to decide anything just yet. I wanted to have Christmas with my family. The day after Christmas I made up my mind to drive out to California to investigate cannabis oil as a treatment. We read articles about successful brain tumor results in Spain and Amsterdam and gathered information wherever we could. We decided to give the cannabis oil a try, especially after we read a paper on a study about the chemotherapy my doctor had recommended. That study suggested patients with tumors like mine appeared to get better at first with the chemo but then the left over tumor cells would mutate and turn aggressive over time.

I am acting caregiver for my wife who for the past 3 years has suffered from acute anxiety and depression which all started with a fall resulting in a broken hip. She has since then broken the other hip. At age 74 now the anxiety is detrimental to her recovery as she feels she can’t preform the smallest task. I appreciate your site I just finished reading as I am trying to educate myself on this approach to help to regain her self confidence. Thanks for your time snd efforts are help people like us. John


In the U.S., we live in a culture where more is often perceived as being better.  And it’s easy, without even thinking about it, to apply that approach to CBD dosing. But when it comes to CBD, more is not necessarily better. In fact, for many, less CBD is more effective. One way to determine your optimal dosage is to start with a small amount of CBD for a couple weeks and then slowly increase your dosage, carefully taking note of symptoms, until you’re seeing the results you want.
Many of the folks I coach and do consults with have always struggled with a “sensitive gut”, irritable bowel syndrome, bloating, gas, constipation and other signs of gut inflammation, and being able to use CBD to reduce gut inflammation could be a game-changer for these people. But from the joints to neural tissue, CBD has a variety of other natural anti-inflammatory effects. Here is just a smattering of the studies done on cannabidiols and inflammation.

CBD for insomnia is becoming a more popular choice as sufferers from sleeplessness struggle to find a cure. For many users of CBD, better sleep is a common benefit. This is due to CBD’s many positive influences on the central nervous system, including greater relaxation and mood. As CBD tends to calm anxiety and generally help with the ability to sleep soundly, this powerful, natural agent should be considered one of the best ways to sleep fully and restfully during the night.


In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[13] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[14] This change applies only to FDA-approved products containing no more than 0.1 percent THC.[14] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[14] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[65][66]


Relevant studies in animal models are summarized in chronological order in Table ​Table1.1. CBD has been studied in a wide range of animal models of general anxiety, including the elevated plus maze (EPM), the Vogel-conflict test (VCT), and the elevated T maze (ETM). See Table ​Table11 for the anxiolytic effect specific to each paradigm. Initial studies of CBD in these models showed conflicting results: high (100 mg/kg) doses were ineffective, while low (10 mg/kg) doses were anxiolytic [59, 60]. When tested over a wide range of doses in further studies, the anxiolytic effects of CBD presented a bell-shaped dose–response curve, with anxiolytic effects observed at moderate but not higher doses [61, 90]. All further studies of acute systemic CBD without prior stress showed anxiolytic effects or no effect [62, 65], the latter study involving intracerebroventricular rather than the intraperitoneal route. No anxiogenic effects of acute systemic CBD dosing in models of general anxiety have yet been reported. As yet, few studies have examined chronic dosing effects of CBD in models of generalized anxiety. Campos et al. [66] showed that in rat, CBD treatment for 21 days attenuated inhibitory avoidance acquisition [83]. Long et al. [69] showed that, in mouse, CBD produced moderate anxiolytic effects in some paradigms, with no effects in others.
From our personal experience, we can also confirm that CBD can have a very calming effect. We can as well imagine that it can help with anxiety, although we do not suffer from anxiety. When I was stressed out by pressure, it always helped a lot. This may not exactly be anxiety in the real sense of it, but the potential could already be guessed well.
Let's start with the most officially proven medical use of CBD. Earlier this year, the FDA approved the first-ever drug containing CBD, Epidiolex, to treat two rare forms of pediatric epilepsy. To get to that point, the drug's manufacturers had to do a whole lot of randomized, placebo-controlled trials on humans. They had to study how much children could take, what would happen in case of overdose, and any possible side effects that would occur.
CBD has also been shown to enhance extinction of contextually conditioned fear responses. Extinction training involves repeated CS exposure in the absence of the US, leading to the formation of a new memory that inhibits fear responses and a decline in freezing over subsequent training sessions. Systemic CBD administration immediately before training markedly enhanced extinction, and this effect depended on CB1R activation, without involvement of TRPV1 receptors [65]. Further studies showed CB1Rs in the infralimbic cortex may be involved in this effect [82].
CBD oil is much slower than antidepressant medications, so it is much safer for the gland in the brain and for the overall health as well. As we have mentioned there are no side effects of this oil and it can be used by everyone at any given moment. The serotonin levels also affect anxiety. Let’s say that they will eliminate it as well. CBD oil benefits anxiety because it makes you a happier person and also calms you down. At the end of a day, you will feel better and more relaxed than ever before. As such, you will definitely have more than just an improvement of your life.
And then I woke up on the concrete, a worried crowd gathered around me. “You had a seizure,” my friend said gently as I blinked my eyes, trying to process this new information.  I remember it was warm that night because I was wearing a sundress, and when I finally regained consciousness my first worry was that my dress flew up and everyone could see my underwear.

"Right now, any claims and dosing recommendations by any company making a CBD product for the medical marijuana market is purely anecdotal," he says. "Asking 100 people who use your product whether they feel better isn't real science. The products on the market are also different from what was used in the scientific studies that they are basing their claims upon. If a study found an anti-anxiety effect when dosing humans with synthetic CBD, that doesn't mean that your CBD oil that contains 18 percent CBD is going to reduce anxiety. It might even have the opposite effect."
Even if you live in a state where marijuana use is legal, the federal Drug Enforcement Administration still classifies the CBD extract as a Schedule 1 substance — the DEA's most restricted category. According to the agency, "Schedule I drugs, substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse."

Hello Ben, I’m from India. My apologies in advance for a long letter. I’ve found you article very informative and humorous also. While there are a few references to India, they are mostly of turmeric. Marijuana and Hemp recorded use in India is more than 6000 years old. You seem to have missed out on it though you do talk of Persia and early Christianity dating back to 2000 years.


This seemed to help me. It was an unexpected pleasant surprise, since I tried cbd for pain relief and calming effect. I was a heavy marijuana user for years. I recently quit and I had some unanticipated problems with erectile dysfunction. I think somehow with all the marijuana I smoked I had some kind of hormone imbalance possibly, I know something wasn’t working right. Anyway since I’ve started taking cbd oil haven’t had any more erectile problems. More sensitivity too. Not sure how it would work on a non marijuana smoker, (I think my problems were from the chronic use of marijuana) but it’s definitely worth a try. It works for so many other things and it worked for me!
With that said, I'm definitely intrigued enough by the subtle effects to continue taking the oil and possibly even to up the dosage to the recommended two full droppers of the 30mL bottle per day for a week or so. Plus, I take comfort in knowing that it's an all-natural treatment for anxiety that's responsibly grown on family farms in Colorado. Something that's safe, legal, requires no prescription, and makes me less anxious, less scatterbrained, and more focused? I'm definitely on board.

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Because I never go downtown, I had to stop for a latte at my favorite coffee shop—and a second CBD pick-me-up. By the time I stepped into the crowded Indie Beauty Expo, I felt calm and happy. As an introvert, I usually have a hard time making small talk at events. But post-CBD oil, I felt comfortable enough to chat up a storm with every person I met! Three hours later I dragged myself out of the huge exposition and made it to my meditation class, where I took another dropper of CBD oil. Although I really love meditating, I find it particularly challenging to get into the “zone” after a long day at work. Not so much after taking some CBD—it was easy to calm my mind and tune into my breath, despite how fast-paced my day had been.
Leonard Leinow has three decades of experience growing and studying medical cannabis and brings a unique spiritual perspective to his work. In 2009, he formed Synergy Wellness, a not-for-profit medical cannabis collective in California. Synergy Wellness has over 3,500 members in its collective and is an artisan organization making hand-crafted organic and natural whole plant-based products. They are specialists in CBD (cannabidiol), the non-psychoactive portion of cannabis, and are pioneers in this aspect of the industry. Leinow is known for his proprietary blends of tinctures and medicine used for cancer and epilepsy patients.
It’s also nearly impossible to overdose on CBD. Kind of like water, dark chocolate, and steamed kale, it has an unusually low level of toxicity. In the last 6,000 years, CBD hasn’t killed anyone via overdose, which is particularly impressive when you compare it to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, Advil and Tylenol, which can wreak havoc on your gut lining, liver and kidneys. Or aspirin (salicylic acid) which kills over 1,000 people every year. Or alcohol, which kills over 110,000 people a year. No one’s ever died from CBD.
How does CBD compare to hemp oil or hemp extract? The latter comes from the seeds of the hemp plant, but does not contain the same amount of cannabinoids found in cannabis oil, as these cannabinoids are extracted from the whole plant. When cannabis has low levels of THC (under 0.3 percent) and high levels of CBD, it’s often called CBD hemp or industrial hemp.
Scientists have made a lot of progress in understanding how CBD produces its calming, pain-reducing, anti-inflammatory effects in the body—and there’s still more to learn. We know that CBD interacts with many different receptors, proteins, and other chemicals in the brain. These interactions create changes in the activity of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other cells throughout the brain and body. Through these interactions, CBD appears to be able to affect many of the body’s functions, from sleep-wake cycles and emotional regulation to inflammation, pain perception, and seizures.
I woke up seriously looking forward to my morning CBD oil fix … I mean, tonic. Truth be told, I’m an anxious person. Although I do a lot to try and calm my nerves, sometimes anxiety gets the best of me. But regardless of emotional or physical stress (I’m training for a marathon and running quite a bit!) I experienced this week, I felt a lot more in control after drinking my CBD oil tonics.  After work, I met up with a friend and felt like I could fully focus on our conversation without distractions. Could it be the CBD?
Cannabidiol also works with anxiety by boosting our own endocannabinoid levels, meaning that we can naturally produce more of the things inside of us that put us in a good mood without needing extra things like CBD. Another interesting side effect of CBD with anxiety is that CBD actually boosts our own natural production of endocannabinoids such as anandamide.
I have tried NatureCBD and believe in the product. I particularly noticed alleviation in joint pain and reduction in stress – although stress reduction may have been supported by pain reduction. However, since I live in Canada and it is expensive to ship, I have been using CBD from a licensed medical marijuana facility. The effect is not as powerful as from NatureCBD. I had not really considered the bioavailability issue; perhaps that is the reason for the weaker effect. Or possibly it could be the other herbs added, or the synergistic effect. In any case, I am going to bite the bullet (at least my visa card will) and go back to NatureCBD.

Cannabis has always been a popular form of treatment for a variety of medical conditions, but in the 1930’s growing concerns about the dangers of marijuana abuse led to cannabinoids being banned. A century has past and despite all efforts from cannabis enthusiasts through social media channels and online media, cannabis is still classed as a schedule 1 drug.

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CBD has a broad pharmacological profile, including interactions with several receptors known to regulate fear and anxiety-related behaviors, specifically the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, and the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor [11, 12, 19, 21]. In addition, CBD may also regulate, directly or indirectly, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter, the adenosine transporter, additional TRP channels, and glycine receptors [11, 12, 19, 21]. In the current review of primary studies, the following receptor-specific actions were found to have been investigated as potential mediators of CBD’s anxiolytic action: CB1R, TRPV1 receptors, and 5-HT1A receptors. Pharmacology relevant to these actions is detailed below.

When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. These can be made using CBD-dominant cannabis as well as THC strains. Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive. These may be available as CBD oils, ointments, salves, or other forms, and with varying ratios of CBD and THC (a ratio of 1:1 is often recommended as ideal for skin application). The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body.
It is well known that people who consume cannabis in other forms notice increased appetite, famously called “the munchies”. However, cannabis essential oil can help regulate your appetite and induce hunger, while also stimulating your digestive system to operate at a regular level. This can help people who want to gain weight quickly, particularly after an extended illness or injury.
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Liquid CBD Oil/Tinctures/Extracts: Drops or tinctures should have a “suggested serving size” and the total milligrams of CBD listed on their packaging. From there, you can determine the amount of CBD you would like to ingest. Simply place the correct quantity of drops under your tongue using the dropper and hold the CBD oil in place for a minimum of 60 seconds. The 60 second hold allows for absorption via the blood vessels underneath your tongue – efficiently bypassing first-pass metabolism. Once 60 seconds has passed, swallow the CBD oil.
A study from 2016 worked with 214 people with epilepsy. The study participants added oral doses of 2 to 5mg of CBD per day to their existing anti-epilepsy medications. The study’s researchers monitored the participants for 12 weeks, recording any negative side effects and checking on the frequency of their seizures. Overall, participants had 36.5 percent fewer seizures per month. However, severe adverse effects were recorded in 12 percent of the participants.
I have had RA for 21 yrs. This is the only product that I actually see, with my own eyes daily, my arthritic nodules shrinking big time. OMGosh, within 18 hours of taking the tendon nodules on my right wrist were GONE! o more need for wrist braces I have needed for years. I have friends that are experiencing great results to for fibromyalsia and chronic back pain!
Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
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In the meantime, some physicians are forging ahead — and cashing in. Joe Cohen is a doctor at Holos Health, a medical marijuana clinic in Boulder. I asked him what CBD is good for, and he read me a long list of conditions: pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, anxiety, psychosis, muscle spasms, hyperactive immune systems, nervous system degeneration, elevated blood sugar and more. He also claimed that CBD has anti-cancer properties and can regenerate brain cells and reduce the brain’s levels of amyloid beta — a kind of protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. I asked for references, noting that most of these weren’t listed in the Academies report or a similar review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “I think you just have to Google search it,” he said. It’s true that a preliminary study found hints that cannabinoids might reduce beta amyloid proteins in human brain cells, but the study was done in cells grown in a lab, not in people. As for cancer, the FDA sent warning letters last year to four companies that were selling products that claimed to “prevent, diagnose, treat or cure” cancer.
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